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The Complex Interactions Between Obesity, Metabolism and the Brain
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Pancreatology 2 89— Role of body fat distribution and the metabolic complications of baton rouge weight control clinic. Brain inflammation and microglia: facts and misconceptions. Obesity and insulin resistance. A critical period for the trophic actions of leptin on AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
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Obesity 19 — Changes in serum lipids after gastric bypass surgery. Lack of a relationship to weight loss. Adipokines: a link between obesity and dementia? Astrocytes in injury states rapidly produce anti-inflammatory factors and baton rouge weight control clinic microglial inflammatory responses. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: friend or foe?
Body weight is regulated by the brain: a link between feeding and emotion. Psychiatry 10 — Obesity and vascular risk baton rouge weight control clinic at midlife and the risk of vaporizzatore di perdita di peso and Alzheimer disease. Associations with weight loss and subsequent mortality risk. Cognitive function in patients with diabetes mellitus: guidance for daily care.
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BMC Endocr. Association of adiponectin mutation with type 2 diabetes: a candidate gene for the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes 51 — Insulin resistance is associated with cognitive decline among older Koreans with normal baseline cognitive function: a prospective community-based cohort study. Improved glucose tolerance in mice receiving intraperitoneal transplantation of normal fat tissue. Diabetologia 50 — Brain-gut axis and its role in the control of food intake. Adiponectin and resistin in human cerebrospinal fluid and expression of adiponectin receptors in the human hypothalamus.
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Ethnic differences in pancreatic fat accumulation and its relationship with other fat depots and inflammatory markers. Diabetes Care 34 — Physical exercise-induced myokines and muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk: a review of current knowledge and the implications for health and metabolic diseases. Long-term effects of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men.
Recombinant methionyl human leptin therapy in replacement doses improves insulin resistance and metabolic profile in patients with lipoatrophy and metabolic syndrome induced by the highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Pancreatic steatosis: harbinger of type 2 diabetes in obese rodents. Neuroendocrinology 90 — Adiponectin as a novel determinant baton rouge weight control clinic bone read article density and visceral fat.
Bone 33 — Obesity and Brain Function. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Cell Biol. Impairment of long-term potentiation and spatial memory in leptin receptor-deficient rodents. Neuroscience — Association of plasma leptin levels with incident Alzheimer disease and MRI measures of brain aging. JAMA — Links between ectopic fat and vascular disease in humans. Birth weight, adulthood BMI, and subsequent weight gain in relation to leptin levels in Swedish women.
Short-term plasticity of gray matter associated with leptin deficiency and replacement. Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease. Age-related baton rouge weight control clinic of muscle mass, strength, and power and their association with mobility in recreationally-active older adults in the United Kingdom. Aging Phys. Quadriceps muscle function characteristics in severely obese and nonobese adolescents. Differences in quadriceps muscle strength and fatigue between lean and obese subjects.
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Diabetes 46 — But if you need to come into Baton Rouge Clinic, contact us today! Since opening our doors inBaton Rouge General has been a part of many of our community's groundbreaking milestones in healthcare. We have multiple consumer reviews, photos and opening hours. See all General Surgeon office locations in Baton rouge weight control clinic Rouge, doctor ratings and insurance accepted. Professional Weight Loss Clinic is a group practice with 1 location.
Baton Rouge Weight Control Clinic. Compare doctors, read patient reviews, background information and more. Book an appointment today. Enter your 5 digit zip code and find the closest Weight Watchers meeting location. Obesity is increasing at unprecedented levels globally, and the overall impact of obesity on the various organ systems of the body is only beginning to be fully appreciated.
Because of the myriad of direct and indirect effects of obesity causing dysfunction of multiple tissues baton rouge weight control clinic organs, it is likely that there will be heterogeneity in the presentation of obesity effects in any given population.
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Taken together, these realities make it increasingly difficult to understand the complex interplay between obesity effects on different organs, including the brain.
The focus of this review is to provide a comprehensive view of metabolic disturbances present in obesity, their direct and indirect effects on the different organ systems of the body, and to discuss the interaction of these effects in baton rouge weight control clinic context of brain aging and the development of neurodegenerative diseases.
It has been shown that obesity in middle age is able to shorten life expectancy by 4—7 years Peeters et al. A major problem baton rouge weight control clinic obesity is the diverse set of health associated complications it promotes including hypertension, diabetes, increased cardiovascular risk, and cancer Calle et al.
By convention, a person with a BMI of less than A BMI of more than This index provides a reasonable estimate of body fat, and it is more accurate than skinfold measurements. However, the use of BMI has certain limitations, because it does not distinguish between lean and fat mass, nor does it indicate anything about fat distribution. In this sense, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are the most accurate methods to measure the baton rouge weight control clinic of visceral fat.
Unfortunately, these tests are expensive and require sophisticated equipment. Waist circumference, a more straightforward but more reliable method to measure abdominal adiposity, baton rouge weight control clinic become an increasingly important tool for classifying obesity Hu, Numerous studies have shown that many obesity-related risk factors depend mainly on fat body distribution rather than excess weight per se.
Hence, it is important to take into account how body fat is distributed in an individual, for example, between subcutaneous versus visceral or intra-abdominal fat. It is important to note that visceral fat, but not subcutaneous fat, is more associated with metabolic syndrome, which is further discussed below. Scheme depicting how the imbalance between baton rouge weight control clinic input and the output leads to obesity as a final outcome.
Adipose tissue is a complex, specialized, multicellular organ able to influence the function of almost all other organs. It is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes, but which also contains the stromal-vascular fraction of cells vascular endothelial cells, preadipocytes, and fibroblasts as well as macrophages. Adipose tissue is very heterogeneous and, anatomically, consists of different fat depots with unique characteristics.
All these characteristics bring with them metabolic consequences that impact the whole body, including the brain. It is known that each anatomical fat depot has a particular physiological role, which implies baton rouge weight control clinic specific metabolic and baton rouge weight control clinic characteristics.
Baton rouge weight control clinic aforementioned, there is strong evidence showing that some fat depots are more robustly associated with disease development and outcomes.
In mammals, adipose tissue forms in utero just before birth and throughout life. Moreover, the continuous generation of new adipocytes has been shown in adult humans Spalding et al. Unfortunately, little is known about adipocyte development. However, the study of adipose stem cell biology results extremely important for understanding adipose tissue development, expansion, migration, and maintenance.
These two main classes are molecularly and functionally different. WAT is spread throughout the body as subcutaneous and visceral fat. The upper body subcutaneous fat consists of superficial and deep abdominal fat, extremity fat, and, in the case of females, breast fat, whereas the lower body subcutaneous fat is mainly in the gluteofemoral region Jensen, ; Kwok et al.
Its major depots are the omental, mesenteric, epicardial, and mediastinal Kwok et al. For example, sWAT is heterogeneous and is composed mainly of unilocular adipocytes together with small multilocular adipocytes whereas vWAT looks more uniform and is composed mainly of large unilocular adipocytes Tchernof et al. It is believed that while increased sWAT deposition known as a pear-shaped fat distribution might protect against metabolic dysfunction, the increase in vWAT known as an apple-shaped fat distribution might increase the risk of metabolic disease Grauer et al.
Indeed, vWAT has been demonstrated to expand majorly by hypertrophy of preexisting adipocytes while sWAT expands by hyperplasia, i. It is important to highlight read more bigger hypertrophic adipocytes are usually associated with metabolic dysfunction.
In line with this, very important in terms of metabolic disease is the fact that vWAT adipocytes are metabolically i. Indeed, this characteristic of being metabolically less active than vWAT makes of sWAT a very important source of free fatty acids during food deprivation. It is important to highlight at this point that vWAT mass but not sWAT mass correlates with the development of insulin resistance Chowdhury et al.
A plethora of studies argue in baton rouge weight control clinic of women better distributing fat in the periphery compared to men having more central obesity and thus having better metabolic health Kwok et al. Interesting experiments with transplantation of adipose tissue have been performed in animals, and they have been very useful for assessing the different functions and metabolic properties of the different fat depots.
For example, transplantation of subcutaneous fat from donor mice into visceral fat site of recipient baton rouge weight control clinic has shown to confer metabolic benefits in the latter, namely decrease in body weight and total fat, improvement of insulin sensitivity, and lowering of both insulinemia and glycemia Tran et al. Unexpectedly, intraperitoneal transplantation of visceral fat from lean mice showed to improve insulin sensitivity, suggesting that the metabolic performance of a baton rouge weight control clinic fat depot is more important as a metabolic risk factor than the anatomical location or the amount of fat itself Konrad et al.
On the other hand, transplantation of visceral fat or subcutaneous fat into subcutaneous fat site has not shown to cause baton rouge weight control clinic alterations in body weight or metabolic profile, so it seems there are both donor and recipient site-specific factors that intervene in the final outcome Tran et al.
Other experiments have shown similar results in both autologous as well as heterotransplantation of subcutaneous fat into the intraabdominal cavity of diet-induced obese animals.
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In both cases, transplanted adipocytes showed to diminish their size, and insulin sensitivity, as well as serum lipid profile, showed to be improved, correcting almost all the metabolic parameters altered by obesity Foster et al. Interestingly, transplantation of brown adipose tissue to the visceral cavity has also demonstrated to prevent weight gain and improve carbohydrate metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese animals Townsend and Tseng, All this evidence strongly suggests that fat cells from different depots do have different characteristics and thus can play protective or detrimental roles in metabolism.
Obesity is known as a chronic low-grade inflammatory disorder that results a triggering factor for many other metabolic and inflammatory disturbances. The obesity-linked inflammatory response includes many components of the classical inflammatory response, namely augmented secretion of circulating inflammatory factors, recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed tissues and organs, and this web page of these leukocytes.
However, the metainflammation observed in obesity has distinctive characteristics. For example, it is known that the chronic low-grade inflammation ends affecting the metabolic homeostasis in the long-term.
Also, the multi-organ affection observed as the result of obesity-associated baton rouge weight control clinic results to be unique Lumeng and Saltiel, Adipose tissue, which was primarily thought to be a mere storage depot for triglycerides, is now considered an immune organ playing a vital role as a primary in vivo site of inflammation in obesity.
Indeed, adipose tissue also plays a critical endocrine role due to the ever-increasing number of baton rouge weight control clinic secretory factors that have been described. Importantly, the dysregulation of the adipokine secretion pattern has been linked to obesity and all the obesity-related metabolic disturbances such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, etc.
Moreover, changes in either the amount or the quantity of the secreted adipokines are able to affect the various organ systems of the body vital for energy homeostasis. It is important to note that the weight loss-associated normalization of the adipokine secretion pattern is linked to the consequent normalization of different metabolic parameters, reinforcing the idea baton rouge weight control clinic adipokines are critical for the whole baton rouge weight control clinic metabolic homeostasis.
It is important to highlight that although secreted by adipose tissue, adipokines except for leptin are not solely secreted by adipocytes. Many other baton rouge weight control clinic are produced and secreted by both adipocytes and leukocytes, such as adiponectin and IL All fat depots are able to release adipose hormones, but visceral fat is considered to be the primary source of them.
It has also been demonstrated that each fat depot has a particular pattern of adipokine expression Dodson et al. Interestingly, it has been shown that adipokines are also released by some particular places of the central nervous system where adipokine receptors are also expressed.
Nonetheless, alterations of adipokine release during obesity and aging are attributed almost exclusively to changes in baton rouge weight control clinic structure and function of the adipose tissue Kiliaan et al. A detailed description of each adipokine is beyond the scope of this review, but a few generalizations of the most important ones deserve mention.
Leptin is probably the most studied adipokine. It is produced peripherally by WAT but exerts the bulk of its metabolic functions centrally, after crossing the blood brain barrier BBB.
However, it has been shown to be produced both in rodent and human brains Morash et al. It is well known that leptin action in the hypothalamus maintains body weight homeostasis in response to changes in the nutritional status. Activation of these receptors suppresses food intake and promotes baton rouge weight control clinic expenditure pathways Tilg and Moschen, baton rouge weight control clinic Simerly, It is worth highlighting that several hypothalamic neuropeptides have been shown to be produced by leptin-sensitive neurons and to act as neurotransmitters mediating leptin action Xu and Tong, However, the specific neurotransmitter responsible for midbrain leptin action on feeding remains elusive.
Very importantly, experiments of leptin receptor restoration in the brain of mice which completely lack the receptor function baton rouge weight control clinic shown the normalization of the metabolic parameters de Luca et al. Interestingly, leptin signaling has baton rouge weight control clinic been suggested to be one of the circulating factors connecting obesity and the consequent reproductive dysfunction, being the reproduction defects reverted by pharmacological administration of leptin Tong and Xu, Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects dieta settimanale per entrare in chetosi exclusively by adipose tissue and suggested to be a visceral adiposity marker, due to the fact that several studies in humans have shown that visceral adipocytes secret more adiponectin than subcutaneous adipocytes Lenchik et al.
It exists as trimers, hexamers, and high-molecular-weight HMW multimeric complexes Rutkowski and Scherer, Recent data indicate that the HMW complexes have predominant action in metabolic tissues Achari and Jain, Unlike the majority of adipokines, adiponectin plasma levels correlate inversely with obesity, insulin resistance, and type-2 diabetes mellitus Hotta et al. However, the decreased level of adiponectin in obesity is not clear yet. Physiological functions of adiponectin in the brain have been related majorly to food intake, energy expenditure, lipid and glucose metabolism, and body weight control Kubota et al.
Interestingly, adiponectin physiological levels are generally higher in females than in males and decrease in both sexes as age increases Ng and Chan, It should be mentioned that several studies have shown that the pharmacological reconstitution of adiponectin levels through drugs targeting adiponectin synthesis would help baton rouge weight control clinic the treatment of obesity and the associated diabetes and cardiovascular disease Achari and Jain, Resistin was first discovered to be secreted by adipocytes in rodents.
However, in humans, it is predominantly expressed and secreted by macrophages. It is known that increased resistin levels are linked to the development of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, resistin would promote endothelial dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, arterial inflammation, and the generation of foam cells, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis Park et al.
This adipokine is expressed by different types of cells, including adipocytes, hepatocytes, and myocytes. However, in adipose tissue, it has been shown to be secreted majorly by infiltrating macrophages Deng and Scherer, Visfatin is produced by visceral adipose tissue, and thus its production is increased in abdominal obesity. Click, visfatin has been demonstrated to bind to insulin receptor and mimic insulin hypoglycemic effects, i.
Apelin has been relatively recently classified as an adipokine since although it is produced and secreted baton rouge weight control clinic adipocytes, it is also expressed together with its receptor in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system. Apelin has been related to the regulation of blood pressure, food intake, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis Castan-Laurell et al.
In vitro as well as in vivo studies have shown a strong relationship between apelin and insulin Boucher et al. Moreover, apelin has been suggested to be the last protection before the appearance of obesity-associated metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes, or cardiovascular disease Castan-Laurell et al.
IL-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesized and secreted by several cell types, including adipocytes and immune cells. Not only does IL-6 participate in inflammatory responses but it also controls feeding behavior at a hypothalamic level Stenlöf et al. IL-6 circulating levels have been systematically reported to be augmented in obesity, being visceral fat secretion an important baton rouge weight control clinic of IL-6 thus linking the enlarged visceral fat with the existence of systemic inflammation in obese baton rouge weight control clinic Fontana et al.
It was the first inflammatory adipokine associated with the onset and progression of insulin resistance Hotamisligil and Spiegelman, In summary, adipose tissue, as an immune and endocrine organ, produces a wide variety of soluble factors collectively baton rouge weight control clinic adipokines.
These molecules were initially associated uniquely to metabolic activities, but today it is known that they regulate numerous physiological and physiopathological events.